Earth-Moving Machinery

Standards apply to machines, attachments, and derived machinery designed for loosening, picking-up, moving, transporting and/or distributing earth, or to grade earth and rock. These standards identify the hazards associated with numerous and diverse types of earth-moving machines and lay out guidelines for the reduction of such risks as those arising during commissioning, operation, or maintenance. Among the machines included here are tractor-dozers, loaders, backhoe-loaders, excavators, dumpers, scrapers, pipelayers, trenchers, landfill compactors, cable excavators, and rollers.



Excavator can be utilized over wheels or treads and are used most often to shovel dirt or lift heavy pieces of machinery. They are usually obvious on account of their long bucket arm attached to a cab which pivots. Excavators are operated by a worker who, in the cab, has high visibility over the work area

Backhoe loaders


Backhoe loaders are mounted on tires and can be used in suburban areas. They share many similarities with tractors. The main difference is they contain a shovel at the front which can be adjusted and a bucket at the rear which is used to dig. Backhoe loaders are usually the best choice for smaller jobs which need to be completed in a more restrained space. Backhoe loaders shift dirt, shovel trenches and position pipes into place.



Generally bulldozers are believed to be the most heavy-duty machines on the market. Bulldozers are incredibly strong and the best choice for shifting large amounts of dirt on sites where there are wide open spaces, rough grading, and grinding rock. Bulldozers are easily identified by the huge blade at the front of the equipment that is controlled with the use of hydraulic pistons.

Skid Steer Loaders


Skid steer loaders can be used for the widest range of purposes of all heavy earth moving machinery. It’s also equipment which is very easy to use and being on wheels, with a tight turning range, is the best choice for smaller sites. Skid steel loaders help lower soil compaction, work well in difficult conditions such as snow/mud, and have a limited impact on finished zones because of their tread system.

Motor Graders


Most often employed to fine grade and shift small amounts of dirt and prepare the base before laying asphalt, motor grader are identified by their longer adjustable blade used to make surfaces smoother. They also feature an additional blade so they can be used for mining underneath the ground.

Off-road dump truck


s are used strictly off-road for mining and heavy dirt hauling jobs. There are two primary forms: rigid frame and articulating frame. The term ‘dump’ truck is not generally used by the mining industry, or by the manufacturers that build these machines. The more appropriate term for this strictly off road vehicle is “haul truck” and the equivalent European term is ‘dumper’. The classification describes how loaded material is discharged from the dump body and in this case, the load is discharged from the rear.